Sample Analysis

Your human samples are measured by our validated LIA assay systems (serum, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid).

Price on application


Substance P (SP) is a neuropeptide that is released from sensory nerves and several types of immune cells. It is involved in the transmission of pain and has a number of pro-inflammatory effects. Like other neuropeptides, SP is derived from a large precursor peptide, protachykinin A (PTA). Because SP is very unstable with a short half-life PTA is measured in the test.

Technical Data

Product Name PTA LIA
Analyte Protachykinin A (PTA)
Species Human
Format LIA (Luminometric Immuno Assay)
Label MACN-Acridinium-NHS-Ester
Standard Range 0.02 – 2231 pmol/L
Sample Volume 50 µL
Incubation Time 4 h
Incubation Temperature 2 – 8 °C
Analytical Assay Sensitivity 13.5 pmol/L
Functional Assay Sensitivity ~22 pmol/L
Intra-Assay CV < 10 %
Inter-Assay CV < 15 %
Suitable Samples EDTA plasma undiluted or Cerebrospinal fluid 1:10
Storage 2 – 8 °C

Available Antibodies and Substances

Product Description Art.No.
monoclonal antibody anti-PSP 12IB3 PTA001
monoclonal antibody anti-PSP 12IC10 PTA002
monoclonal antibody anti-PSP 12IG5 PTA003
monoclonal antibody anti-PSP2 Nr. 11 PTA004
monoclonal antibody anti-PSP2 Nr. 16 PTA005
monoclonal antibody anti-PSP2 Nr. 21 PTA006
monoclonal antibody anti-PSP2 Nr. 30 PTA007
monoclonal antibody anti-PSP2 Nr. 34 PTA008
peptide Substance 37 PTA009



  • Ernst A., Bürger K., Hartmann O., Dodel R., Nölker C., Sommer N., Schwarz M., Köhrle J., Bergmann A., Hampel H. Midregional Proenkephalin A and N-terminal Protachykinin A are decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with dementia disorders and acute neuroinflammation. J Neuroimmunol. 2010 Apr 15;221(1-2):62-7 PubMed PMID: 20207019
  • Ernst A., SphingoTec GmbH. Procalcitonin, Midregional Proenkephalin A and N-terminal Protachykinin A in cerebrospinal fluid to differentiate bacterial from viral meningitis. Webpublication
  • Ernst A, Suhr J, Köhrle J, Bergmann A. Detection of stable N-terminal protachykinin A immunoreactivity in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. Peptides. 2008 Jul;29(7):1201-6 PubMed PMID: 18374454

Apo E4

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder with multiple etiologies. The presence of the E4 isoform of apolipoprotein E (apoE) has been shown to increase the risk and to decrease the age of onset for AD and is the major susceptibility factor known for the disease. ApoE4 has been shown to intensify all the biochemical disturbances characteristic of AD, including beta amyloid (Abeta) deposition, tangle formation, neuronal cell death, oxidative stress, synaptic plasticity and dysfunctions of lipid homeostasis and cholinergic signalling.


  • Zhong N, Weisgraber KH.Understanding the basis for the association of apoE4 with Alzheimer’s disease: opening the door for therapeutic approaches. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2009 Oct;6(5):415-8 PubMed PMID: 19874264
  • Kim J, Basak JM, Holtzman DM. The role of apolipoprotein E in Alzheimer’s disease.Neuron. 2009 Aug 13;63(3):287-303 PubMed PMID: 19679070
  • Cedazo-Mínguez A, Cowburn RF. Apolipoprotein E: a major piece in the Alzheimer’s disease puzzle. J Cell Mol Med. 2001 Jul-Sep;5(3):254-66 PubMed PMID: 12067484
  • Yamauchi K, Tozuka M, Nakabayashi T, Sugano M, Hidaka H, Kondo Y, Katsuyama T.Apolipoprotein E in cerebrospinal fluid: relation to phenotype and plasma apolipoprotein E concentrations. Clin Chem. 1999 Apr;45(4):497-504 PubMed PMID: 10102909